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Introduction
Electromagnetic field theory is one of the most fundamental and important branches of physics that deals with the study of electric and magnetic fields and their interactions with matter. It has a wide range of applications in engineering, science and technology such as electrical engineering, electronics, telecommunications, biomedical engineering, nanotechnology, photonics, plasma physics, astrophysics and cosmology.
One of the pioneers and experts in this field is Bhag Singh Guru, who is a professor emeritus of electrical engineering at Kettering University in Michigan. He has over 40 years of teaching experience in electromagnetics and has authored several books and papers on the subject. His co-author is HÃ¼seyin R. Hiziroglu, who is also a professor of electrical engineering at Kettering University. He has over 30 years of teaching experience in electromagnetics and has published many research articles on microwave engineering, antenna design and electromagnetic compatibility.
Their book \"Electromagnetic Field Theory Fundamentals\" is a comprehensive textbook that covers the essential topics of electromagnetic field theory for undergraduate students. It provides a clear explanation of the concepts and principles of electrostatics, magnetostatics, time-varying fields, wave propagation, transmission lines, waveguides, cavity resonators, antennas and computer-aided analysis of electromagnetic fields. It also includes numerous examples, problems, figures, tables and appendices to help the students understand and apply the theory to practical situations.
Electromagnetic field theory basics
The first part of the book introduces the basic concepts and principles of electromagnetic field theory. It starts with a historical overview of the development of electromagnetic theory from the experiments of Coulomb, Ampere, Faraday, Henry and others to the formulation of Maxwell's equations by James Clerk Maxwell in the 19th century. It then explains the mathematical tools and techniques that are used to describe and analyze electromagnetic fields such as vector analysis and coordinate systems.
The book then covers the three main branches of electromagnetic field theory: electrostatics, magnetostatics and time-varying fields. Electrostatics deals with the electric fields and forces produced by stationary electric charges and their distribution in space. Magnetostatics deals with the magnetic fields and forces produced by steady electric currents and their distribution in space. Time-varying fields deals with the electric and magnetic fields that vary with time due to changing electric charges and currents.
The book also presents the four fundamental equations that govern the behavior of electromagnetic fields: Maxwell's equations. These equations relate the electric and magnetic fields to their sources (electric charges and currents) and show how they are coupled to each other. They also show how electromagnetic waves are generated and propagated in free space and in different media. Maxwell's equations are one of the most elegant and powerful achievements of physics that unify electricity and magnetism into a single theory.
Electromagnetic wave propagation
The second part of the book focuses on the properties and characteristics of electromagnetic waves in different media. It explains how electromagnetic waves are solutions of Maxwell's equations that satisfy certain boundary conditions at the interfaces between different media. It also explains how electromagnetic waves can be represented by plane waves, spherical waves, cylindrical waves or other types of waves depending on the geometry and symmetry of the problem.
The book then covers various phenomena that occur when electromagnetic waves interact with different media such as reflection, refraction, polarization, interference and diffraction. Reflection is the bouncing back of an electromagnetic wave when it hits a surface or an obstacle. Refraction is the bending of an electromagnetic wave when it passes from one medium to another with a different refractive index. Polarization is the orientation of the electric field vector of an electromagnetic wave in a certain direction or plane. Interference is the superposition of two or more electromagnetic waves that results in constructive or destructive patterns. Diffraction is the spreading of an electromagnetic wave around a corner or an aperture.
The book also discusses various applications and examples of electromagnetic waves in communication, radar, optics and remote sensing. Communication is the transmission and reception of information using electromagnetic waves such as radio waves, microwaves, infrared waves, visible light waves or ultraviolet waves. Radar is the detection and measurement of objects using reflected electromagnetic waves such as microwaves or radio waves. Optics is the study of light and its interaction with matter such as reflection, refraction, polarization, interference, diffraction, dispersion, absorption, scattering or emission. Remote sensing is the observation and analysis of natural or man-made phenomena using electromagnetic waves such as visible light waves, infrared waves, microwave waves or radar waves.
Electromagnetic transmission lines
The third part of the book deals with electromagnetic transmission lines which are devices that carry electromagnetic waves from one point to another along a conductor or a dielectric medium. They are widely used in electrical engineering for power transmission, signal transmission, impedance matching, filter design and other purposes.
The book explains how transmission lines can be modeled by lumped parameters such as resistance, inductance, capacitance and conductance or by distributed parameters such as per unit length resistance, inductance, capacitance and conductance. It also explains how voltage, current, impedance, power and reflection coefficient can be calculated for transmission lines using Kirchhoff's laws or telegrapher's equations.
The book also introduces Smith chart which is a graphical tool that simplifies the analysis of transmission lines by mapping complex impedances to points on a circular diagram. It also shows how impedance matching techniques can be used to improve the performance of transmission lines by minimizing reflections and maximizing power transfer. Some examples of impedance matching techniques are quarter-wave transformer, stub matching, single-stub matching and double-stub matching.
Electromagnetic waveguides and cavity resonators
The fourth part of the book covers electromagnetic waveguides which are structures that confine and guide electromagnetic waves along a certain direction or path. They are commonly used in microwave engineering for signal transmission, filter design, antenna design and other purposes.
Electromagnetic waveguides and cavity resonators
The fourth part of the book covers electromagnetic waveguides which are structures that confine and guide electromagnetic waves along a certain direction or path. They are commonly used in microwave engineering for signal transmission, filter design, antenna design and other purposes.
The book explains how waveguides can support different modes of electromagnetic waves depending on their shape, size and frequency. A mode is a specific pattern of electric and magnetic fields that satisfies the boundary conditions of the waveguide. The book focuses on two types of modes: transverse electric (TE) modes and transverse magnetic (TM) modes. In TE modes, the electric field is perpendicular to the direction of propagation and has no component along the axis of the waveguide. In TM modes, the magnetic field is perpendicular to the direction of propagation and has no component along the axis of the waveguide.
The book then discusses how to determine the cut-off frequency, phase velocity, group velocity, attenuation and dispersion for different types of waveguides such as rectangular waveguides and circular waveguides. The cut-off frequency is the minimum frequency at which a mode can propagate in a waveguide. The phase velocity is the speed at which a constant phase point of a wave travels along the waveguide. The group velocity is the speed at which a pulse or a modulation envelope of a wave travels along the waveguide. The attenuation is the loss of power or amplitude of a wave due to various factors such as conductor loss, dielectric loss or radiation loss. The dispersion is the variation of phase velocity or group velocity with frequency.
The book also introduces cavity resonators which are closed metal boxes or cavities that store electromagnetic energy in resonant modes. They are used as filters, oscillators, amplifiers and couplers in microwave circuits. The book explains how to calculate the resonant frequency, quality factor, bandwidth and impedance for different types of cavity resonators such as rectangular cavity resonators and cylindrical cavity resonators. The resonant frequency is the frequency at which the cavity resonator has maximum stored energy or minimum impedance. The quality factor is a measure of how well the cavity resonator stores energy or how narrow its bandwidth is. The bandwidth is the range of frequencies around the resonant frequency at which the cavity resonator has significant response or power transfer. The impedance is the ratio of voltage to current at the terminals of the cavity resonator.
Electromagnetic antennas
The fifth part of the book deals with electromagnetic antennas which are devices that radiate and receive electromagnetic waves. They are essential components of any wireless communication system such as radio, television, cellular phones, satellite communication and radar.
The book explains how to define and measure various antenna parameters such as radiation pattern, directivity, gain, efficiency, bandwidth and polarization. The radiation pattern is a graphical representation of the power radiated by an antenna in different directions. The directivity is a measure of how well an antenna focuses its radiation in a desired direction. The gain is a measure of how much an antenna amplifies its input power or signal in a given direction. The efficiency is a measure of how well an antenna converts its input power into radiated power or how much power is lost due to various factors such as ohmic loss, mismatch loss or dielectric loss. The bandwidth is a measure of how well an antenna operates over a range of frequencies without significant degradation in performance. The polarization is a measure of how an antenna aligns its electric field vector in a certain direction or plane.
The book also discusses various types and designs of common antennas such as dipole antennas, loop antennas, horn antennas, parabolic dish antennas and array antennas. A dipole antenna is a simple antenna that consists of two thin wires or rods connected to a transmission line. A loop antenna is a simple antenna that consists of a single wire or rod bent into a loop shape and connected to a transmission line. A horn antenna is an antenna that consists of a flared metal tube that acts as a transition between a waveguide and free space. A parabolic dish antenna is an antenna that consists of a parabolic reflector that focuses electromagnetic waves onto a feed element such as a horn antenna or a dipole antenna. An array antenna is an antenna that consists of multiple identical elements arranged in a certain pattern such as linear array, circular array or planar array.
Computer-aided analysis of electromagnetic fields
The sixth and final part of the book covers computer-aided analysis of electromagnetic fields which is the use of computers to solve electromagnetic problems that are too complex or impractical to solve analytically. It is a powerful and indispensable tool for modern electromagnetic engineering and research.
The book explains the advantages and challenges of using computers to solve electromagnetic problems such as accuracy, speed, memory, stability, convergence and validation. It also explains the main methods and tools for numerical analysis of electromagnetic fields such as finite difference method (FDM), finite element method (FEM), method of moments (MoM) and finite-difference time-domain method (FDTD). FDM is a method that approximates the differential equations of electromagnetic fields by algebraic equations on a discrete grid of points. FEM is a method that divides the problem domain into smaller subdomains or elements and applies variational or weighted residual techniques to obtain a system of equations. MoM is a method that represents the unknown fields or currents by a series of basis functions and applies boundary conditions or integral equations to obtain a system of equations. FDTD is a method that solves the time-dependent Maxwell's equations by finite differences on a staggered grid of points.
The book also provides some examples and applications of computer-aided analysis of electromagnetic fields such as antenna design, microwave circuits, electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and electromagnetic interference (EMI). Antenna design is the process of designing antennas that meet certain specifications such as frequency, gain, bandwidth, polarization and radiation pattern. Microwave circuits are circuits that operate at microwave frequencies and involve components such as waveguides, transmission lines, filters, couplers, mixers and amplifiers. EMC is the ability of an electronic device or system to function properly in its intended environment without causing or being affected by electromagnetic disturbances. EMI is the unwanted generation or reception of electromagnetic energy that interferes with the operation or performance of an electronic device or system.
Conclusion
In conclusion, this article has provided an overview of the book \"Electromagnetic Field Theory Fundamentals\" by Bhag Singh Guru and HÃ¼seyin R. Hiziroglu. The book is a comprehensive textbook that covers the essential topics of electromagnetic field theory for undergraduate students. It provides a clear explanation of the concepts and principles of electrostatics, magnetostatics, time-varying fields, wave propagation, transmission lines, waveguides, cavity resonators, antennas and computer-aided analysis of electromagnetic fields. It also includes numerous examples, problems, figures, tables and appendices to help the students understand and apply the theory to practical situations.
Electromagnetic field theory is one of the most fundamental and important branches of physics that has a wide range of applications in engineering, science and technology. It is also a fascinating and challenging subject that requires a solid mathematical background and a good physical intuition. The book by Guru and Hiziroglu is an excellent resource for anyone who wants to learn more about this fascinating subject.
For further reading and learning, some of the recommended books are:
\"Engineering Electromagnetics\" by William H. Hayt Jr. and John A. Buck
\"Elements of Electromagnetics\" by Matthew N.O. Sadiku
\"Field and Wave Electromagnetics\" by David K. Cheng
\"Microwave Engineering\" by David M. Pozar
\"Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design\" by Constantine A. Balanis
FAQs
What is the difference between TE mode and TM mode in waveguides?
TE mode stands for transverse electric mode, which means that the electric field is perpendicular to the direction of propagation and has no component along the axis of the waveguide. TM mode stands for transverse magnetic mode, which means that the magnetic field is perpendicular to the direction of propagation and has no component along the axis of the waveguide.
What is Smith chart and how is it used to analyze transmission lines?
Smith chart is a graphical tool that simplifies the analysis of transmission lines by mapping complex impedances to points on a circular diagram. It can be used to find various parameters such as reflection coefficient, voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR), input impedance, output impedance, load impedance, source impedance and impedance matching.
What are cavity resonators and what are their applications?
Cavity resonators are closed metal boxes or cavities that store electromagnetic energy in resonant modes. They are used as filters, oscillators, amplifiers and couplers in microwave circuits.
What are antennas and what are their types?
system or circuit. EMI can be caused by various sources such as switching transients, harmonics, electromagnetic coupling, electrostatic discharge or radio frequency interference.
The book explains how to identify and mitigate EMI sources and effects using various techniques such as shielding, grounding, filtering, decoupling, layout optimization and component selection. Shielding is the use of conductive or magnetic materials to enclose or surround a device or circuit to prevent electromagnetic radiation from entering or leaving. Grounding is the use of a common reference point for all electrical circuits to provide a low impedance path for unwanted currents to flow to earth. Filtering is the use of passive or active components to attenuate unwanted frequencies or signals from a device or circuit. Decoupling is the use of capacitors or inductors to isolate a device or circuit from noise or interference from other devices or circuits. Layout optimization is the use of proper design rules and guidelines to minimize the loop area, trace length and mutual coupling of electrical circuits. Component selection is the use of appropriate devices or components that have low emission or high immunity to EMI.

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