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The Essential Guide To Cultivating Mushrooms : ...


Kay, Sikes, and Morse have revised this new edition to account for the variety of ways mycology has changed in the last twenty-five years, while holding to its original purpose as a guide for active mushroomers. Primarily, A New Guide to Kansas Mushrooms highlights the upheaval in taxonomy caused by advances in molecular genetics: an estimated 25 percent of fungal names included in the original guide have changed since 1993. Second, the list of mushrooms found in Kansas has expanded and the new edition will add 50 species to the 150 described in the original guide."




The essential guide to cultivating mushrooms : ...



In this practical guide, you will discover how mushrooms develop, cultivation techniques, ideal soil and climatic conditions, the best species to grow at home, and the exceptional health benefits of some varieties. Not many know how easy it is to grow tasty mushrooms independently in their own homes. Most people prefer to buy mushrooms of dubious origin in shopping malls rather than organically self-producing the healthiest and tastiest species.


This is your comprehensive, one-stop guide for learning all about mushrooms and how to grow them. You don't need any experience as this guide will walk you through every step., and if you've already ventured into the world of mushroom growing, this book will set you on the right course for success.


This audiobook is the perfect guide for you to learn everything you need to know about magic mushrooms. From the science behind it, the effects, all the way to growing your own magic mushrooms in your home.


At the international level, numerous articles have been published, focusing on the study of the accumulation of metals, both essential and toxic, and their importance in human health by analyzing the results from a nutritional point of view or by studying the level of toxicity. Most of these studies have focused on the determination of essential metals such as Fe, Ca, Na, or K, as well as toxic elements as Cr, Cd, Pb, Hg, or As in mushrooms from Indian or African regions [15,16,18,20,22,26], or in mushrooms from around the world such as Boletus edulis, Macrolepiota procera or Lactarius deliciosus collected in regions of Poland and Turkey [4,14,21,23].


Spain has always been characterized as a mycophobic country, especially in the southern region, although in recent years tourism and consumption have increased due to the great variety of plant formations and climatic conditions, especially in Andalusia [31]. Despite the growing interest in mushrooms, the studies carried out on the determination of the metal content have been scarce in Spain and, specifically, most of them have focused on the determination of non-essential and potentially toxic metals (i.e., Pb, Hg, Cd, or As) in local mushrooms, such as Lepista nuda or Coprinus comatus from Northern regions such as Galicia or Castilla y Leon [32,33,34,35,36,37,38]. Regarding the determination of essential metals, studies have been even fewer than for toxic metals, although it is of nutritional benefit to assess their content to provide a complete and objective information about the food safety of mushrooms. For example, researchers such as Haro et al. [11] have studied the content of essential metals, such as Fe, Na, P, Cu or Ca, among others, in different species from southern Spain, such as Macrolepiota procera, Lactarius sanguifluus, or Lactarius deliciosus. However, in this work, besides Lactarius sanguifluus and Lactarius deliciosus, other species belonging to the genus Lactarius, such as L. vinosus, L. semisanguifluus, and L. rugatus, have been analyzed. In addition, different geographical locations in the south of Andalusia have been studied, since both mushroom species and geographical location are factors that can affect the accumulation of metals by mushrooms. This fact is evidenced by the studies carried out by other authors, where the concentrations of different essential metals, such as Fe, K, or Mg among others, vary among the different species of mushrooms of the genus Lactarius collected in different locations in Spain, South Africa, Poland, Serbia, and Romania [4,11,14,22,39].


After calculating the content of essential metals incorporated into the body by consuming a daily intake of 300 g of fresh mushroom of each sample analyzed, it can be seen that none of them on their own satisfies the recommended daily intake for the metals determined, except for Fe (Table 4). For this last metal, samples #2: L. deliciosus from Talassemtane (Morocco) and #16: L. semisanguifluus from Puerto de la Mora (Granada, Spain) exceed the RDI values for men; samples #3: L. deliciosus from Dchar Akjiouene (Chaouen, Morocco), #10: L. deliciosus from Fuente del Espino (Granada, Spain), and #18: L.sanguifluus from Sierra de Huetor (Granada, Spain) exceed the RDI values for men, women, and children; and samples #13: L. vinosus from Pinar el Colorado (Cadiz, Spain) and #17: L. semisanguifluus from Sierra de Huetor (Granada, Spain) exceed the RDI for men and children according to the FESNAD. Fe is the most abundant trace element in the body, as it is present in numerous proteins, such as hemoglobin, as well as in various enzymes or cytochromes involved in redox reactions [30]. Due to its numerous oxidation states, and its broad capacity to form coordination compounds, iron is present throughout the biological system, performing different functions [44]. An Fe deficiency in the human body can cause health problems, the most common being anemia. On the other hand, an excess of Fe can lead to acute toxicity, accompanied by gastrointestinal disorders, such as diarrhea or vomiting, or affect the proper functioning of the liver, the central nervous system, or the cardiovascular system [44]. Therefore, considering that some of the analyzed mushroom samples exceed the RDI levels for Fe, the excessive and prolonged consumption of mushrooms of the species and geographical locations indicated could pose a health risk in terms of this element.


The following supporting information can be downloaded at: , Figure S1: Map with the locations of the different sampling places of the studied mushrooms; Table S1: Results of one-way ANOVA test performed with a confidence level of 95% for quantified each essential metal in the Lactarius mushrooms collected in northern Morocco and southern Spain. 041b061a72


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